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How To Create a Training Program
By Courtenay Schurman, MS, CSCS
You've just plunked down a sizeable chunk of money for an exciting trip that you are taking in six months. It will require getting in the best shape of your life, and you're more than a little nervous about being ready in time. You have a goal, you're committed to that goal, you have support, and you're ready to start training.
To show you how we create a program, we're going to use as an example a fictional high altitude trek in Nepal, reaching 17,000' elevation as its high point and lasting three weeks, with an optional scramble to 21,000' in the middle of the trip requiring more technical skills.
When we create a program for a client we do a thought experiment similar to what is described at Fitness Polygon to analyze the components and importance of each given a person's goals. You can use the polygon to evaluate what level of strength, strength endurance, power, speed, flexibility, sports skills, body structure, and cardiovascular endurance you need for your adventure. An assessment of the goal activity gives you target end points.
If you are going with a guide service, find out from them as much detail as possible about how much weight the average person is expected to carry (and if there will be support pack animals, Sherpa or porters), what distance you will travel in total and per day, how much elevation you will gain in total and per day, how long the trip is (and how much water/food to bring), what you are expected to bring, and what physical activities you will be doing. If you are interested in participating on the scramble, find out what they screen for and if you need additional proof of skills to go with them, or what you'd do instead. Day of rest? side hike? sight see? Maybe these are better options to consider. Ask questions.
Once you know the requirements, figure out the activities you need to train for. Three weeks of trekking in the high mountains of Nepal with yak support will require a different training program than a three week exploratory trek without animal support and with a high altitude first ascent. Note that both are of the same duration, but require carrying different weight, with more skill and experience needed for the second case. The scramble scenario also requires greater recovery time, as you'd be adding 4,000' on a "rest" day and then continuing with the rest of your group, with no recovery time, to finish the trek.
Once you know the end points of your trip and can map them on your fitness polygon, the next step is figuring out where you are starting, and how you compare to the end goal. If a strength test on a 5th class multi-pitch alpine climb leaves you with burning forearms, you may still have enough upper body strength for a trek and scramble that relies more heavily on legs and core. Whereas an ice climb might need more upper body endurance, a scramble and trek don't. It may also mean that a more valid assessment of your starting point would be going on an eight mile hike with 3,000' of gain carrying fifteen pounds to see what your starting pace is.
Be honest with yourself about how you feel, where you feel weak, where you feel slow, but also what already feels good so you don't spend a lot of time on an area where you're already strong. Fix your weaknesses first. If you notice your hips are getting really tight when you hike, you may want to add targeted hip and lower body stretches to manage the lack of mobility. If your knees feel weak or cranky on the descents, you'll want to strengthen the glutes and quadriceps.
Work backward from your end goal in step-wise progression so that the weekly increments are comfortable and will not overwhelm your body or mind. To get a representative idea of a first month of high altitude climbing training for "Mel," see WebTrainer Sample. Add 10% per week (pack weight / distance) until you reach your target pack weight, then add a few back to backs (see Back-to-back Training for how to do this and why) to get ready for repeat pack carrying.
Set some intermediate goals along the way to help you determine how effective your training program is. In a program lasting four months (16 weeks), you might set a hiking goal for 6 weeks and another at ten weeks, then your first back to back at 12 weeks and another at 14. These mini-goals keep you motivated, provide you with training feedback, and allow you to adjust the training as needed. They also give you good benchmarks for when to change your strength program. In the first six weeks, train with unilateral exercises (single limb movements such as dips, lunges, step ups and downs, one arm rows and presses) to make sure both sides of the body are working evenly. Keep repetitions in the 8-10 range and focus on perfect form.
In the middle four weeks, focus on building as much strength as possible, doing sets of 5-8 repetitions on bilateral exercises (working both limbs at the same time, in other words pushups, deadlifts, squats, bench presses, pullups) so that in the last 4-6 weeks of training you can build stamina with lighter weights, higher repetitions (12-15) and shorter rest so that you are physiologically ready for the demands of high altitude and less usable oxygen. During each phase, focus on what you're trying to do - get good form while building a foundation, build strength, top off your stamina - and adjust training parameters accordingly.
Once you have your macro blocks in place (of 4-6 weeks each) it's time to figure out what your weekly program will look like. In general, for high altitude mountaineering objectives such as this one, we recommend building to the following training by the time you are a month from your objective:
- Two weekly full-body strength workouts (45 minutes) spaced roughly 48-72 hours apart;
- One longer hiking objective building to 4-8 hours (minimum; depends on the needs of your goal trip) with target pack weight you'll be carrying on the trip and 3000' of elevation when possible (if you're going to do the scramble);
- One mid-week pack intervals workout (using 5-10% more weight than your weekend outings as you're training anaerobic conditioning for shorter periods of time) building to 45 minutes of stairs or hill climbing, along with core and leg strength
- Stretching 5-10 minutes per day or flexibility/mobility training such as Tai Chi or yoga
- Unweighted (i.e. no pack) vertical training (i.e. hills walking, stairs, trail running, incline treadmill, elliptical, step mill, stairclimber are all suitable) up to twice per week for anywhere from 45-90 minutes, again depending on starting point and end objective.
A sample week, therefore, a month before your objective might look like this:
- Monday OFF
- Tuesday Strength and pack intervals
- Wednesday Unweighted hills walking
- Thursday OFF
- Friday Strength
- Saturday/Sunday hikes, one for endurance, one unweighted (this would turn into Back to Back training four and two weeks in front of your trip).
If you aren't quite sure how to put your unique program together, or you have special rehabilitative needs, a crazy work / travel schedule, complications beyond average fitness that you're uncomfortable working around on your own, you may find some of the additional resources below helpful.
The Outdoor Athlete will prepare you for adventure with performance training programs designed to maximize outdoor enjoyment. Whether increasing upper body strength for an upcoming climb, or building endurance for a multi-day hike, The Outdoor Athlete will make sure you are ready. Written by Body Results trainers Courtenay and Doug Schurman, this resource will outline numerous programs for over sixteen sports and show you exactly how we create programs specific to your goals.
Train to Climb Mt. Rainier DVD provides a comprehensive six-month training program for the novice-to-intermediate level alpine climber who wants to climb Mt. Rainier and other high-altitude peaks. Included in the video are guidelines for aerobic, anaerobic, and climbing-specific training including flexibility and strength exercises selected for high-altitude mountaineering conditioning requirements. If you are not in the Seattle area but would like to learn proper form for mountaineering-specific exercises, this is the perfect product for you.
WebTrainer provides customized online training delivered right to your inbox. We'll take your starting point, end objective, training requirements and limitations, and work closely with you to create the program that will get you to your goal and enjoy safe and effective training along the way.